You successfully added to your cart! You can either continue shopping, or checkout now if you'd like.
Note: If you'd like to continue shopping, you can always access your cart from the icon at the upper-right of every page.
Jonah is the Prophet of Restoration. He is the prophetic witness of the law of cleansing lepers (Lev. 14) and the law of the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16). He is a prophet who proves that God is concerned about non-Israelites, and questions Israelite nationalism and exclusivism. The book of Jonah is one of the most remarkable books in the Bible.
Category - Bible Commentaries
Jonah was called to preach the word of warning to the city of Nineveh, but he ran in the opposite direction. He knew that God was compassionate and suspected that the city might repent and be spared. He did not want the city to be spared, because he knew that the Assyrians would eventually conquer Israel.
While on the ship to Tarshish (Spain), God sent a storm that threatened to sink the ship. The captain told everyone to pray to his god, and it seems that while Jonah was praying to Yahweh, the sailors decided to cast lots to see who was responsible for the storm. Jonah 1:7 then says,
7 And each man said to his mate, “Come, let us cast lots so we may learn on whose account this calamity has struck us.” So they cast lots and the lot fell on Jonah.
This is a good illustration to show how God can lead even pagan unbelievers to fulfill His will unknowingly. The sailors did not realize that they were being led by the Spirit to fulfill the prophetic law found in Numbers 14 and 16.
In Lev. 14:1-7 we read about the law of cleansing lepers, which requires two doves. The first is killed, and the second is released into the open field. Since leprosy is a type of slow death, it represents mortality. This law gives us the legal principles by which death is overcome.
This is the primary law that Jonah was manifesting prophetically, because Jonah’s name means “dove.” The first dove was to be killed (Lev. 14:5), and the second dove was to be released alive (Lev. 14:7). This speaks of the two comings of Christ, for we know that Jonah was a type of Christ (Matt. 12:39, 40).
Secondly, in Leviticus 16:1-22 we read about the Day of Atonement, where the sin of the people is cleansed by two goats. The first is killed to cover sin, and the second is released to remove sin. Once again, we see the two comings of Christ pictured as the solution to the sin problem. The doves deal with death; the goats deal with sin.
Jesus Christ fulfilled both doves and both goats, first by His death on the cross, and secondly by His release into the world (a living work). The law sets forth the spiritual principle, because “the law is spiritual” (Romans 7:14). The prophets then walk out those principles by intercession.
Jonah was called to bear witness of the law by illustrating the principle of the two doves, thereby interpreting this law. Among other things, it proves that Christ would have to come twice, but more importantly, it shows the purpose of each appearance.
It took two doves to cleanse a leper. So we find that when Christ completed that first work upon the cross, He said, “It is finished.” But this did not finish the work of the second dove, but only the first one. There yet remained another work to do, and that is why we are yet mortal. A second coming (and work) of Christ is necessary to bring us fully into immortality.
Jonah’s name means “dove,” but they cast lots for him as if he were a goat. So Lev. 16:8-10 says,
8 And Aaron shall cast lots for the two goats, one lot for the Lord [lit., “for Yahweh”] and the other lot for the scapegoat [lit., “for Azazel”]. 9 And Aaron shall offer the goat on which the lot for the Lord fell, and make it a sin offering. 10 But the goat on which the lot for Azazel fell, shall be presented alive before the Lord, to make atonement upon it, to send it into the wilderness as the scapegoat [lit., “for Azazel”].
Just as the first dove was to be killed to cleanse lepers (i.e., mortals), so also the first goat was to be killed in the temple to cover SIN. This was done on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), which literally is the Day of Covering. To atone is to cover.
The first goat covered sin, but did not remove it. It takes a second goat to remove sin. So also, it takes a second coming of Christ to remove sin from us. Meanwhile, however, our sin has been covered, so that we are imputed righteous. God is calling what is not as though it were (Rom. 4:17, KJV).
The sailors cast lots, and Jonah was discovered to be at fault. In this way, he became a type of Christ, taking the blame for the sin of the world. Even as Jonah was cast into the sea and swallowed up by the whale, so also was Christ killed and buried in the heart of the earth. Jesus identified Himself as the fulfillment of Jonah’s prophecy, saying in Matt. 12:39, 40,
39 … An evil and adulterous generation craves for a sign; and yet no sign shall be given to it but the sign of Jonah the prophet; 40 for just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, so shall the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
Jesus was referring to Jonah’s first call to preach the word, which brought him into the belly of the whale. So also, Jesus was “in the heart of the earth” while he lay in the tomb. The death experiences of both Jonah and Jesus referred back to the laws in Leviticus 14 and 16.
Because there were two doves and two goats, we see Jonah being called to go to Nineveh on two occasions. The second calling fulfilled the second dove and the second goat. Likewise, we see Jesus having two appearances and two distinct works to accomplish in the earth. The first was a death work; the second is a living work of some kind. Details about each are given in the gospels, and the book of Acts reveals more details about the second work of Christ.
It is important to know that Azazel does not refer to a scapegoat, but to the devil, as we will see shortly. Strong’s Concordance tells us that Azazel is from az, “a she-goat,” and azal, “to go away, disappear, depart.” The KJV mistranslates it as “scapegoat,” giving it the meaning of someone being blamed for the sin of another. But the actual meaning points to the fact that the goat was being sent into the wilderness while carrying away the sins that had accumulated under the altar of sacrifice during the previous year.
In another way of looking at it, azaz means “to strengthen, make strong,” and el means “god.” Azaz is the root word for az, “goat.” Hence, Azaz-el can mean “God strengthens.” By this view, we may see the purpose of the second goat. By removing sin, God strengthens us in the power of His might.
When the high priest sent the second goat into the wilderness, the goat was not a scapegoat as such. Lev. 16:21, 22 says of this goat:
21 Then Aaron shall lay both of his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniquities of the sons of Israel, and all their transgressions in regard to all their sins; and he shall lay them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a man who stands in readiness. 22 And the goat shall bear on itself all their iniquities to a solitary land; and he shall release the goat in the wilderness.
A true scapegoat is one who is blamed for the sin of another and then pays the penalty for that sin. If there is any scapegoat here, it is the first goat, not the second, for the first goat is the one that was killed. The second remained alive, for it had a living work to do.
The blood of the first goat was sprinkled on the mercy seat in the Most Holy Place to atone (kaphar, “cover”) for the sin of the people. The high priest then laid the sin and iniquity upon the second goat and sent it into the wilderness to remove sin. Hence, Azazel means “the goat of departure.”
Dealing with the great problems of sin and death each require two steps. The two goats speak of atonement, followed by the removal of sin. In a similar manner, the two doves speak of imputed immortality, followed by actual immortal life. For this reason, Christ must come twice. Christ’s death on the cross finished the first work, but He must come again to complete the work.
There is a teaching known today as “the finished work of Christ.” It is based on Jesus’ statement on the cross: “It is finished” (John 19:30). Certainly, He finished His first work at that time, but in no way did He mean that the full work was finished. The law makes it clear that there are two works of Christ, not just one, and the prophet Jonah lends his prophetic voice to this truth as well. Hence, when Jesus said, “It is finished,” He was not referring to the full plan of salvation, but to the first part of it that is depicted by the first goat and the first dove.
As for the problem of death, the first dove was killed to cleanse all mortals (pictured as lepers). However, it is apparent that even believers still die. Mortality was not overcome by the first dove. Instead, the first work of Christ laid down the legal foundation of immortality, giving us the promise of life and ensuring that we will indeed achieve immortality. When Christ returns into the world (“the open field” in Lev. 14:7), His work as the second dove will fulfill His promise and grant us immortality.
The problem of sin also requires two works of Christ. His death on the cross covered our sin, providing atonement. But it is apparent that even believers continue to sin, as even Paul himself acknowledges in Rom. 7:23-25. To cover sin gives us legal perfection through imputed righteousness, where God calls what is NOT as though it were (Rom. 4:17 KJV). Hence, Paul quotes Psalm 32:1 in Rom. 4:7, saying,
7 Blessed are those whose lawless deeds have been forgiven, and whose sins have been covered. 8 Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will not take into account.
Verse 8 admits that such believers yet have sin, but that the Lord does not take that sin into account—that is, He does not hold men liable for their sin, because their sin has been covered. Those who have faith in Christ are forgiven, not perfected. Their sin is covered, not removed.
It takes a second work of Christ to remove iniquity from our hearts and to make us actually righteous.
It is important for believers to understand how this works, so that we do not become disappointed when we discover that our faith in Christ has not removed iniquity, that is, that fleshly desire to sin. Some are given the impression that simple faith in Christ’s death on the cross has the power to remove all desire to sin. While such faith certainly can be helpful and motivational, the first goat cannot do the work of the second goat. Neither can the first dove do the work of the second.
I believe that Jesus was born on the feast of Trumpets, September 29, 2 B.C. He turned 30 on Trumpets in 29 A.D. (Remember in your calculation that there is no Year Zero.) After Jesus turned 30 years of age, He went to John for baptism on the Day of Atonement. It was the tenth day of Tishri.
His baptism was necessary “to fulfill all righteousness” (Matt. 3:15) and to fulfill the prophecy about the Day of Atonement set forth in the law (Leviticus 16). Baptism signifies death and resurrection (Rom. 6:4). When Jesus was baptized, He was presenting Himself to the Father as One who was willing to die for the sin of the world, knowing also that He would be raised from the dead.
As for timing, John baptized Him while the first goat was being killed in the temple and its blood was being sprinkled on the mercy seat to cover sin. The dove then hovered over His head, so that we might know that He was also called to fulfill the prophecy of the doves in Leviticus 14. So we read in Matt. 3:16, 17,
16 And after being baptized, Jesus went up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming upon Him, 17 and behold, a voice out of the heavens, saying, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.”
We see, then, that the timing of Christ’s baptism was set by the law setting forth the temple activities on the Day of Atonement, but He was being dedicated to do the work of the first dove as well. At that time, He was picturing both the first goat and the first dove in the law. The timing of His baptism was established by the goat ceremony in the temple on the Day of Atonement. In His role as the first goat, Jesus was being sacrificed as an offering “to Yahweh,” as the law commands.
However, at the same time His baptism pictured His legal death and resurrection as the first dove. Recall that the dove was to be killed in an earthen vessel over running water (Lev. 14:5). So Christ came in an earthen vessel (human body) and was baptized over running water in the Jordan River.
The dove that appeared over His head represented the second dove, because He was then to move into the next phase as the second dove and the second goat.
Matt. 4:1 says,
1 Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil.
Here we see the start of the second work of Christ, at least insofar as Jesus Himself fulfilled it. Being tempted of the devil fulfilled the law, wherein the second goat was supposed to depart, carrying the sins of the people to a deserted place.
But here we see another layer of meaning in the law regarding Azazel. The law does not tell us that the second goat was Azazel himself. It says in Lev. 16:8,
8 And Aaron shall cast lots for the two goats, one lot for the Lord [i.e., “for Yahweh”], and the other lot for the scapegoat [i.e., “for Azazel”].
The implication is that the first goat was given to Yahweh, and the second was given to Azazel. What does this mean? The meaning is explained by Jesus’ own experience. When Jesus was baptized, He was given to Yahweh (as an offering for sin). His baptism dedicated Him to die on the cross at the end of His ministry.
Christ was then led “into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil” (Matt. 4:1). In other words, He was offered to Azazel, that is, to “the devil.” The purpose of this offering was to prove that Azazel had nothing by which to claim Him—no sin, no iniquity, no compromise. Azazel was never going to “own” Jesus, but Jesus had to be given to Azazel for a season to prove the point.
So the law of the second goat prophesied of Jesus’ temptation in the wilderness. More than that, Jesus’ temptation for forty days was also a type of Israel’s temptation in the wilderness under Moses and again the Church’s temptation in the wilderness for forty Jubilee cycles (40 x 49 years). On an individual level, after each of us comes out of Egypt at our Passover experience (justification by faith in His blood), we are all led into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. This is the normal pattern of every believer. No one gets to the Promised Land without going through the wilderness.
The law was obscure as to the purpose of the second goat being given to Azazel, and this obscurity caused men to mistranslate it as “scapegoat.” A scapegoat has little or nothing to do with being tempted by the devil. But the manner in which Jesus fulfilled the law proves its meaning.
When the high priest sent the second goat alive into the wilderness “for Azazel” by the hand of a man standing in readiness, he was prophesying of the day that the Spirit of God would lead Christ into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. Jesus was the goat. The “man who stands in readiness” (Lev. 16:21), called to lead the second goat into the wilderness for Azazel, was the Spirit of God. Hence, “Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness.”
It did not mean that the second goat became the property of the devil, nor did it mean that the second goat represented men who could not be saved (as I once heard a man teach). It meant that the Christ (and later His Body) was to be tested in the wilderness before His ministry could begin.
The Book of Enoch is an old book that was written some time prior to the birth of Jesus. It was never meant to be part of Scripture, though some treat it as such. Nor was it written by Enoch himself. In those days, many people wrote in the name of a famous person from the past in order to try to give their writing credibility.
In my opinion, the first chapter of Enoch may well have been written by Enoch himself, and perhaps other portions as well; but most of it was added by others many centuries later after the Babylonian captivity. Much of the book reflects things that the Jews learned and developed while they were in Babylon. Ezra had already finished compiling the canon of Old Testament scripture by the time Enoch had been written. In fact, even if Enoch (or parts of it) had been written earlier, Ezra was not inspired to include it in the canon of Scripture.
Nonetheless, the Book of Enoch has value in that it shows us what many people believed in those days. Jude quotes from Enoch in the 14th verse of his short epistle:
14 And about these also Enoch, in the seventh generation from Adam, prophesied, saying, “Behold the Lord came with many thousands of His holy ones, 15 to execute judgment upon all, and to convict all the ungodly of all their ungodly deeds which they have done in an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.”
This is a quotation from Enoch 1:9, which says,
9 And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones to execute judgement upon all, and to destroy all the ungodly; and to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, and of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
In chapter 7 of Enoch, Azazel is one of the fallen angels who came to Mount Hermon, took the daughters of men, and produced giants (nephilim) as their offspring. Israel encountered these giants many years later from the time of Moses until the time of David.
So we read in Enoch 8:1-3,
1 And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all 2 colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 3 were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways….
In the appeal toward heaven for justice against the Nephilim, the people say in Enoch 9:6, 7,
6 Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which 7 men were striving to learn:
Enoch 10:4-9 gives us God’s verdict:
4 And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening 5 in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever [i.e., until “the day of the great judgment”], and cover his face that he may 6,7 not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the 8 Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted 9 through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.'
Notice that Azazel was to be bound and imprisoned in the wilderness (“desert”) in darkness until the judgment at the Great White Throne. So the second goat had to be taken into the wilderness to be given to Azazel.
Finally, it says, “to him ascribe all sin,” as if to make him responsible for all the sin in the world—even though Adam sinned prior to the coming of the Nephilim in Gen. 6:4. By attributing all sin to Azazel, the book seems to identify Azazel with the devil (tempter in Eden). This, of course, contrasts with the righteousness of Christ. The true Son of God is contrasted to the rebellious ones who called themselves “sons of God” (Gen. 6:4). It was essentially the name of their club.
The sin in Gen. 6:4 is said to have occurred at Mount Hermon, the same place where Jesus was transfigured and where God pronounced Him to be “My beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased” (Matt. 17:5). Mount Hermon was also called “Mount Sion” (Deut. 4:48), the place where the true Sons of God also are gathered (Heb.12:22, KJV). Mount Sion is north of Israel on the border between Lebanon and Syria. It is not Mount Zion in Jerusalem. At the base of Mount Sion-Hermon was the city of Dan, later known as Caesarea Philippi.
It is of interest to us to know that the rebellious “sons of God” established a counterfeit sonship movement, knowing that Mount Hermon was the divinely-appointed place where the true Sons of God would originate after Jesus was transfigured there. They tried to preempt this through sin in Gen 6:4, but they are now being replaced by the true Sons of God with Jesus as their Head.
Jesus’ temptation proved that He was the Righteous One who was worthy of the title and the position of King over the whole earth. The false “son of God,” Azazel, tested Him in the wilderness, and in Matt. 4:8 he even took Him to a high mountain (probably Mount Hermon) to try to get Him to compromise and to coexist. If Jesus had accepted the offer, He would have been given the second highest position of authority over the earth, and He would not have had to die on the cross.
He refused, knowing that it was never in the divine plan for God to settle for less than the restoration of all things, where all is put under His feet (1 Cor. 15:25-28). In fact, Jesus had already dedicated Himself to die on the cross when He was baptized. If He had turned aside from that course, He could have been neither the first nor the second goat.
Our word temptation does not do justice to the concept being set forth in Scripture. It is better translated trial or testing. Whereas Israel and the Church both failed to pass the tests, Jesus succeeded where they failed. Yet both Israel and the Church has had its overcomers—men and women who have succeeded where the majority have failed. Israel had Caleb and Joshua. The Church has had its faithful ones, and though many were martyred for their witness, they received the promise of “a better resurrection” (Heb. 11:35).
This better resurrection is “the first resurrection” (Rev. 20:4-6), which is the resurrection of the overcomers only. No unbelievers are raised in that first resurrection. The general resurrection a thousand years later (as it says) will see the rest of the dead raised to stand before God at the Great White Throne judgment (Rev. 20:11, 12).
Jesus said that this general resurrection will include believers as well as unbelievers (John 5:28, 29), and the Apostle Paul concurred with this (Acts 24:15). Hence, it is clear that the first resurrection will include only a minority of believers, which we call overcomers. These receive “a better resurrection,” better than that of other believers as well as unbelievers.
This is the special reward, not for one’s justification (Passover), but for one’s sanctification (Pentecost) in the wilderness test. All believers will receive life (immortality), but the overcomers will receive this reward earlier, so that they may reign with Christ during the thousand-year Kingdom Age.
The trial in the wilderness can be seen as the start of the second work of Christ. In Jesus’ example, it is seen as His preparation for ministry. Likewise, Israel’s forty years in the wilderness was designed to prepare them for the work of building the Kingdom. More recently, the Church’s forty Jubilees in the wilderness was supposed to prepare the hearts of believers to build the Kingdom in the Age to come.
Unfortunately, most believers failed to prepare their hearts, both in Israel and in the Church. For this reason, the overcomers are blessed with immortality at the first resurrection, and these are called to “reign with Him for a thousand years” (Rev. 20:6).
There will be many other believers in that day who will then regret their lawless and blind way of life. They will wish that they had taken Jesus more seriously. They will wish they had studied the Scriptures for themselves and learned to hear His voice, rather than relying upon men or church organizations. By remaining mortal at the second coming of Christ, they will die in their own wilderness, even as the Israelites died without receiving the promised inheritance. Yet they will receive their reward later at the general resurrection.
The point is that the time to begin the second work of Christ is now, not later. The greater empowerment will come later with the second coming of Christ, but there is much to be done here and now, though we are yet being tried and tested by the devil.
Our wilderness test is our “Moses” phase, wherein we prepare to receive the Promise under “Joshua.” We all have ministries today on a small scale, for this is part of our on-the-job training. But we should also understand that this is preparing us for a much greater ministry to evangelize the world and bring all things under the feet of Christ after His second coming. We see this in the pattern of Jesus Himself, who began His ministry after His forty-day trial, and also in the pattern of Joshua, whose real ministry began after the death of Moses.
Many have been given the impression that the second coming of Christ will mark their retirement. They think that they will then sit on a cloud and learn to play a harp while singing songs of praise for eternity. They think that suddenly all men will be either in heaven or hell and that the time of evangelism will be finished. Nothing could be farther from the truth.
Isaiah 2:2-4 tells us that in that day all nations will send representatives to learn the laws and ways of God. In other words, the greatest Kingdom work in all of history will then begin. Everyone will want to know how the overcomers achieved immortality, glory, and righteousness.
The Kingdom of God will be like a “stone” that begins small, but grows until it becomes a great mountain and fills the whole earth (Dan. 2:35). This is the Kingdom of God, the fifth kingdom in the succession of world empires. Its growth will take time. It will take a thousand years. For the overcomers, retirement is not an option. Why prepare all of your life, only to retire when you have finally received the power to participate in the greatest calling ever?
Paul says in 1 Cor. 15:25-27, speaking of the time after the resurrection,
25 For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet. 26 The last enemy that will be abolished is death. 27 For He has put all things in subjection under His feet…
There is no mention of retirement in these verses. It is a time of subduing all who think of Jesus Christ as their enemy. He will not subdue or subject all nations in a single moment of time, even though He certainly would have the power to do so. It will take time, because He does not intend to subdue them by military conquest, but by evangelism and by setting forth an example of righteous government and prosperity among Kingdom citizens.
It will be done “not by might, nor by power [force], but by My Spirit” (Zech. 4:6). It will be done, “not in persuasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of [godly exercise of] power” (1 Cor. 2:4).
In fact, it is only when the remaining nations of unbelievers finally attack the Kingdom nations toward the end of the thousand years (Rev. 20:7-9) that the Kingdom of God has lawful cause to take over their territory by conquest. Until then, evangelism will be the order of the day. But in the end, God looses Satan for a season, so that he might tempt the nations to start a war, thereby giving the Kingdom lawful cause to take over the rest of the land mass of the world.
Once the whole earth has been reclaimed, then the Great White Throne judgment will occur, and the restoration of all things will begin. The dead from past generations will be raised for judgment, so that they too might be disciplined and corrected by the fiery law of God (Deut. 33:2, KJV), whose decrees are like a river of fire coming from the throne (Dan. 7:9, 10), ultimately forming a lake of fire (Rev. 20:14).
This fire is not literal. The law itself is the fire, and this includes all judgments that call for restitution for theft and beatings of up to forty stripes for other crimes (Deut. 25:2, 3). Jesus Himself said that a flogging was a “fire” in Luke 12:48, 49.
As we will see shortly, when Jonah was called the second time, he went to Nineveh and preached the word. The city repented. Their conversion was real, but Jonah did not stay to teach them the ways of God, so it did not last. It is very doubtful if anyone in the city even had a copy of the Scriptures. Nonetheless, their repentance was sufficient to prophesy of a greater work that is yet to be done at the second coming of Christ. Not just a city, but the world itself will become subject to Jesus Christ the King of Kings. His glory will fill the whole earth (Num. 14:21).
All of this will come to pass according to the pattern shown in the story of Jonah. Jonah led no armies to subdue Nineveh. He carried only the Sword of the Spirit, the same sword by which we too will subdue the nations. It is a sword that comes from our mouths through the word of God spoken with power.
The Spirit of God came down upon the disciples in the upper room on the day of Pentecost in Acts 2:1-3. This was the fulfillment of the feast of Pentecost, the second great feast of the Lord. But many have missed the fact that there was a second outpouring of the Holy Spirit in Acts 4:31,
31 And when they had prayed, the place where they had gathered was shaken, and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak the word of God with boldness.
This prophesies of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit that is yet future, the final move of God that is associated with the second work of Christ. It is characterized, not by the gift of tongues, nor even by tongues of fire, but by speaking the word of God with boldness.
This points to the second work of Jonah, the prophet who spoke the word of God with boldness to the people of Nineveh. The results that Jonah saw in his day prophesy in a small way of the results that we will see in our own time.
So when Jonah 1:7 tells us that the sailors cast lots and that the lot fell upon Jonah, we are to see this as a fulfillment of Lev. 16:8, where the lots were cast to determine the two goats. The two goats in turn prophesy of the two works of Christ, and since Jonah means “dove,” they must also be linked to the two doves in Lev. 14:1-7.
The prophet Jonah is the main prophet in the Bible who illustrates these laws and gives us a prophetic story that reveals the meaning of these laws. Without understanding the story of Jonah, we would be hard pressed to see the two goats and two doves in the book of Acts.