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Adam was the first king of the world.
The Dominion Mandate was given in Genesis 1:26-28 when God created man (Heb., awdawm) in His image and delegated authority by the decree, “Let them rule” (vs. 26). He also said to them in verse 28 to “subdue” the earth.
No further explanation or instructions about HOW to subdue the earth are given, because man was created in the image of God, and they knew instinctively what to do. The proper way to rule was inherent in them. However, when Adam sinned, this began to change. Little by little, because men were afflicted by death (mortality), they were all infected by creeping carnality. This new disease tended to increase over the generations as time passed.
All of Adam’s descendants were children of the flesh. For this reason, anyone born of a man descended from Adam found himself disqualified to rule the Kingdom. Only one man, Jesus Christ, qualified to rule, for though He was a man, His Father was not descended from Adam, through whom was passed down the corruption of death and sin. Jesus’ Father was God Himself, who sent His Spirit to impregnate Mary (Matt. 1:18).
For this reason, He was called the Son of God. His blood was not human, because the blood of a fetus is derived from the father, not the mother. Jesus carried the blood of His Father, and so He was of the “bloodline” of God Himself.
Only a Son of God can rule in the Kingdom. Flesh and blood is not qualified. Even so, the physical descendants of Adam, one in each generation, were called to rule and to carry on the Dominion Mandate throughout history. It is more accurate, however, to say that these men were called to rule, but they were unable to fulfill the Mandate unless they found a way to become the sons of God under Christ.
This Dominion Mandate was part of the Birthright, along with the Fruitfulness Mandate, until Jacob divided these between Judah and Joseph. To Judah went the scepter (Gen. 49:10), but Joseph was the “fruitful son” (Gen. 49:22), if we translate the verse literally.
Judah’s calling was delayed for ten generations on account of his sin with Tamar (Gen. 38). But finally David came to the throne as the first king of Judah. In the next few centuries the majority of his descendants who came to the throne were carnal, some outright wicked. God allowed them to rule the physical kingdom, but most of them were disqualified from ruling the Kingdom in the Age to come.
The children of the flesh have a legitimate calling, but it is limited. They may rule in an earthly Jerusalem, but not in the heavenly Jerusalem. And when the heavenly Jerusalem is finally recognized by the nations as the highest authority on earth, the earthly kings will have to submit to the rule of Jesus Christ and the overcoming body that rules with Him.
The Head is the Son of God. The body comprise the sons of God. The sons of God are those who have been begotten by the Father, even as Jesus was begotten in Matt. 1:18. No child of the flesh will be qualified in that day. Any claims of descent from a great man called of God in the past will not be sufficient to qualify them for rulership in the Kingdom.
They must have the blood of the Father in heaven and be part of the body of Christ, who is the only authorized King of the World today.
God gave David a promise of an enduring kingdom and unending throne (2 Sam. 7:16). Later, the prophet Jeremiah clarified this, saying that he would never lack a man to sit on the throne over the House of Israel (Jer. 33:17). He prophesied this while the Babylonian armies were coming to destroy the Kingdom of Judah and execute its last king and his sons. When King Zedekiah was killed, it appeared that the promises of God to David had failed.
We understand, of course, that Jesus Christ is the ultimate fulfillment of this prophecy, for His throne endures forever. Since He is immortal, His throne is not passed down to another generation. The question remains, however, about the time between Zedekiah and Jesus Christ. Was there a 600-year gap where no one of the seed of David was ruling over the House of Israel?
No, for we read that Zedekiah’s daughters were spared and that Jeremiah was their guardian (Jer. 41:10; 43:6). When the last of the people were brought captive to Babylon, Jeremiah was allowed to remain free. He brought the king’s daughters to the West, marrying one of them to the king of Tarshish (Spain), and the other to the newly-crowned king of Ireland.
Thus, the seed of David continued to rule over a portion of the House of Israel, for many Israelites had already immigrated to Ireland, Britain, Spain, and other parts of Europe.
Even so, they were not unlike the other kings of Judah, whose misrule had brought about the downfall of Judah and David’s throne in Jerusalem. For the sake of David and the promise given through Jeremiah, there was a throne continually over the House of Israel. But in the end, the sins of those monarchs has not gone unnoticed by the highest King of the World, Jesus Christ.
Regardless of their genealogy, in the end only those who are begotten of the Father by the Holy Spirit will rule in the Age to come. The promise of the Father is not limited to those of any particular genealogy, but is open to all sons that the Spirit has begotten by the gospel (1 Cor. 4:15). One must be begotten by Christ in order to qualify even for citizenship in the Kingdom.
To qualify for rulership, the qualification is greater. Citizens are required to be sons of God, but rulers must also be “Son of Man.” Only in this way are they fully in the image of Christ, who was both Son of God and Son of Man.
In the first century, Judaism understood the messiah to have many titles, among which was “Son of Man.”
For first century Judaism the Son of Man was a majestic title that was like a kingly position, and this concept emerged perhaps partly from the book of 1 Enoch. (Scott, 311-313) Scott defines the 1 Enoch Son of Man clearly as preexistent, heavenly, majestic, and with dominion and will to judge over all angles [i.e., angels] and mankind. (Scott, 313)
Their views were somewhat flawed, because they did not yet understand the parallel concept of the messiah as the Son of God. They did not expect a virgin birth, where God was the messiah’s Father. They did not comprehend the startling truth in John 1:12 that God would give “as many as received Him” the authority to become the sons of God.
For the most part, this truth was hidden from men prior to the resurrection and ascension of Christ.
You are a “son of God” by virtue of your Father in heaven, who has begotten Christ in you. You become a “son of man” by virtue of your mother.
This is best understood by the prophetic allegory of Abraham’s sons. Ishmael was a child of the flesh; Isaac was a child of promise (Gal. 4:28, 29). Both had the same father, but they had different mothers.
In other words, to be truly “chosen” to rule, one must have the right mother. The two “mothers” in this allegory are Hagar and Sarah, but in the outworking of the prophecy, these mothers represent two covenants and two cities.
In other words, one’s mother must be the New Covenant, and she is the New Jerusalem. If one claims the Old Covenant or the old Jerusalem as one’s “mother,” then one is automatically an Ishmael, a child of the flesh. No one can be an inheritor in the Kingdom by claiming Hagar as his mother.
Hence, if a person puts his faith in the Old Covenant, his hope of salvation is linked to his ability to become saved by his own strength, discipline, and resolve. This is the underlying basis of Judaism, Islam, and even many Christian groups. Another mark of “Hagar” is the common view of eschatology that supports the old Jerusalem as the capital or center of the Kingdom in the Age to come.
Therefore, to be a true “Son of Man” in the sense that Jesus Christ was (and is) requires living in earth in a physical body, but yet not being a child of the flesh. How does one do this? That is the question.
To understand anything, one must understand its contrast or how it compares with its counterpart. In this case Son of God is paired with Son of Man. We become sons of God by being begotten by the Spirit, but we become true sons of men by growing into maturity in Christ. This involves learning to function as Christ in the earth, learning obedience until we come into agreement with all that He is and all that He does.
Perhaps the best way to know the function of a Son of Man is to look at the example of Jesus Christ. He is, after all, the Pattern Son, both in His capacity as Son of God as well as Son of Man.
The key is found in John 5:25-27,
25 Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and those who hear shall live. 26 For just as the Father has life in Himself, even so He gave to the Son also to have life in Himself; 27 and He gave Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man.
The Son of God is called to give life to the dead. The Son of Man is called to execute judgment as He rules the earth. These are two different functions and callings.
As members of His body, we share in His calling. As we become extensions of Christ, we are called as sons of God to give the word of life to the dead; but as Sons of Men we are called to judge the earth. This is the calling that Paul mentioned in 1 Cor. 6:1-5,
1 Does any one of you, when he has a case against his neighbor, dare to go to law before the unrighteous, and not before the saints? 2 Or do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is judged by you, are you not competent to constitute the smallest law courts? 3 Do you not know that we shall judge angels? How much more, matters of this life? 4 If then you have law courts dealing with matters of life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church? 5 I say this to your shame….
In other words, Paul recognized that the saints are called to “judge the world” and even “angels.” We are called to learn to judge here and now in this present age. To learn to judge, one must know God and the character of Jesus Christ as expressed in the word of God (including the law).
Many Christians have a general vision of ruling with Christ, but few are preparing themselves to judge the world. If they think they are qualified to judge the world just because they have been justified by faith, they are mistaken. Justification makes you a Son of God, but this does not qualify anyone to be a Son of Man. To be a Son of Man means regaining what Adam lost through sin.
Perhaps Paul learned this from Daniel 7, where “one like the Son of Man” (7:13) comes to judge the earth after the beast empires have had their opportunity to rule the earth in their own carnal manner. After the last beast’s time has passed, the authority is given to the saints of the Most High (7:22). Verse 27 concludes,
27 Then the sovereignty, the dominion, and the greatness of all the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the people of the saints of the Highest One; His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all the dominions will serve and obey Him.
This is the calling of the saints, and we ought to be preparing for it now. Isaiah 2:2-4 prophesies of this time, saying that the nations will come to learn the laws of God from the people of (New) Jerusalem.
God help us if they come for answers and find us ignorant of His law.
There is more than one word for “man” in the Hebrew language. One of the words is awdawm, which we write as Adam. Another is ish (איש), which means a man (or male). It is spelled alef (א), yod (י), and shin (ש).
The Hebrew word for fire is esh (אש), from which we derive our English word “ash.” This is material left over from fire. The word ish simply places a yod in the middle of esh. The yod means “a work or deed.”
In other words, the true man, as God intended for him to be, does all of his works as an expression of the fire of God. The “fiery law” of Deut. 33:2 also shows that the true man was meant to do all things in a lawful manner, for this is how we manifest the will, character, and intent of God.
The Hebrew word for “woman” is ishah (אשה), which means “what comes from fire.” It is the ish (אש) with the letter hey (ה) at the end. When the letter hey appears at the end of a word, it makes it feminine and means “what comes from.”
Woman was taken out of man (Gen. 2:23). The man was supposed to manifest the fiery presence of God (i.e., the baptism of fire), and so the woman was also supposed to partake of that same character of God.
This is a revelation of what God expected of Adam and Eve in regard to his calling on earth as the True Man. For us, it speaks of our calling as Son of Man. Adam himself sinned and was therefore disqualified as the head of all who would come after him. The prophesied Messiah, therefore, inherited this title and calling, and Jesus succeeded where Adam failed.
He is therefore the Head of His children, even as the first Adam was the head of his own children. For this reason one can become not only a son of God, but also a son of Man, for Jesus was both.
As Son of Man, Jesus has been given authority to execute judgment in the earth. That authority, delegated to Adam first, was passed to Jesus Christ. One must become part of the body of Christ as Son of Man to receive that authority under Him.
In other words, to be a son of Man requires having a physical body as part of God’s creation. One does not need a physical body to be a son of God, but one needs a body to be a son of Man. Why? Because the Dominion Mandate was given to man in Genesis 1:26-28.
The problem has been that since Adam sinned, men have not been qualified to rule the earth in the ultimate sense. God certainly has allowed imperfect men to rule under the Dominion Mandate (given to Judah), but none of them were able to bring all things under the feet of Christ. None could restore all things so that God could be all in all (1 Cor. 15:28). Their ability was limited.
God could have given up on the original plan, saying, “I will go down to earth and do it myself.” But to do this would have been admitting defeat. It would have meant that His plan had failed. Yet God is not a failure, because a failure is a sinner.
The Hebrew word for “sin” is khawtaw. It literally means to miss the mark, or to fail to reach a goal. God does not fail in anything He sets out to accomplish. If He fails to restore any part of His creation back to Himself, then He will be a failure. I do not believe this will happen, though many disagree with me. I believe that God is wise enough, powerful enough, and has enough love to motivate Him to succeed in bringing all things under His feet.
God devised an intricate plan by which He would succeed in accomplishing His goal for creation. Creation itself eagerly awaits the completion of this plan. The plan is revealed in the feast days of Israel, and it is a three-step plan.
Step one is revealed in Passover, where we are justified by faith in the blood of the Lamb.
Step two is revealed in Pentecost, where we are sanctified by hearing and obeying His voice, as we are led by the Spirit in the baptism of fire.
Step three is revealed in Tabernacles, where we are glorified and come fully into the image of Christ that was lost long ago through Adam.
These three steps toward full salvation are prophesied by Paul when he says in 1 Thess. 5:23,
23 Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you entirely; and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved complete, without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Our spirit is preserved when we are justified by faith. Our soul is preserved when we are sanctified by hearing and obedience. Our body is preserved when it is glorified.
This is illustrated when Moses came off the Mount with his face glowing (Ex. 34:30). It is illustrated again when Jesus was transfigured on the Mount (Matt. 17:2).
It was prophesied under Moses when God instructed that the priests should wear special linen garments when ministering to God in the tabernacle (Ex. 28:40-43). The prophet Ezekiel spoke of this also in Ezekiel 44:17-19, where he distinguishes between two types of garment, one for the outer court and one for the inner sanctuary.
This was a type of two “tabernacles,” or tents that Paul mentioned in 2 Cor. 5:1. Paul also likens these to “clothing” in the next verse. He says that the heavenly clothing is the immortal body, while the earthly clothing is a mortal body (vs. 4).
In other words, our goal is to put on this heavenly garment of immortality, which is currently reserved for us in the heavens. More than that, we need access to BOTH sets of clothing, even as was the case with the priests under Moses. With one body we may minister to God in the inner court of the sanctuary in heaven, and with the other we may minister to people on earth in the “outer court.”
When we have access to both “garments” through the feast of Tabernacles, we can then function fully as sons of God and as sons of Man.